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Small Town Cherche

Translated by students of Kyiv avia institute

Chapel of the unknown name
A temple is founded: [before 1850]
Comment: catholic chapel on the cemetery in 1850 [ZDR, s. 8].

Church of St. Trinity
A temple is founded: in 1637
Comment: church of St. Trinity is built in 1637 on the highest point of peninsula [���, �. 241 - 243; ��, �. 443 - 444].
Paraphial church existed in 1772 [LKLP], in 1850 [ZDR, s. 8].

Church of St. Nick
A temple is founded: in 1739
Comment: Church of St. Nick founded before 1739 is wooden three-stored building. In 1759 was enough decrepit. In 1790 had two tops (in place of the third, blasted by a storm, a span thatch roof is arranged). Foundation of a new stone church is stopped up in 1790, it is sanctified in 1815 �; is covered partly by gonta, partly by a straw. In 1830th built astride above navou and prutvorom (a bell tower is there arranged). In 1886 there is built stone protection [���].


Cherche (before Chernche) is located on a high peninsula which appears by the deep valley of the Smotrich river, on its right shore, next door to the Zalychia village which is on left shore in the south in 23 layers from Kam'yanets-Podilskyi city. The settlement is very old. If to take into account the name of village (Cherche or Chernche is monastic, monkness), it is possible to assume that this settlement belonged to once the orthodox monastery.

Legend was saved in people, that near the Cherche village there was once a monastery, but in history documents Cherche is remembered from XV century, as domain of kamyanets biskups (thus about the monastery of that time we find no information). Consequently, it is possible to assume that the Cherche village belonged to the orthodox monastery before XV century, and a monastery existed not early than that time here.

Near Cherche village there are the known caves which are named Zalychiansky, because they are located on the lands of Zalychia village. In the east part after the Smotrich river, against church, in a forest natural boundary of "monastery", where after existent legend there was an orthodox monastery. There is information that till recently a stone cross which almost all grew in the land was visible in this natural boundary.


CHERCHE VILLAGE. It is placed on the cape surrounded by high rocks ("Chrechey ridge"). A village existed before the mongol-tatar invasion yet. After translation in him there was the rocky monastery blasted by forwards in 1240. Until now in a forest there is a mountain which is named Monastery. About a village is remembered in the history documents of XV-XVI century. Consider that its name takes place from the root of "cheru" (monk, monks). In a mud flow there is blasted age-old church according to legend built over three hundred years ago.

A little below on stream of the Smotrich river is Zalychia village. With the period of tatar raids the linked history of zalychia church - no doubt, valuable historical-architectural monument of the pas. There is information that it is built over three hundred and fifty years ago. Characteristic architecture of building: rough stocky frame, edged by the loess of bath-house and overhead parts of walls, recovered wooden fastenings. A church was partly reconstructed later: gontovy roof was replaced by pieces of tin; the internal finishing of temple was renewed. Annoyingly, that this monument-creation of skilful hands of people is not trained with sufficient plenitude, by nobody is guarded and is collapsed.

Vladimir Ivan Dal (1801 ... 1872) - Russian scientist-dialectology, lexicography and writer less than year was on Podillya as doctor during the frightful epidemic of cholera of 1831 year. In the story of "Red Russia legend" he marks regretfully, that the monuments of antiquity are in this edge, ruins, caves, burial mounds, towns, tailings of the enigmatic strengthening, but not many from local habitants about them know something, or will say in common words, that tatars "here militated, casting, or even some robber of more new times". Therefore we study history of native edge, which is enough rich and interesting.

Near the villages Cherche, Zaluchia, Nigyn there are the caves wrapped by legends, and which are named in literature variously: Cherchensky, Zaluchansky, and Nigynsky. In a large mountain three caves could be seen above Smotrich: one of them, that are named Town, is long, two short. They are located on the half of height of precipice, but in course of time to the foot of rock so much earth was poured, that it is now possible to walk up to them. At one level with Town the grotto "Horse cave turns black by a dark eye".

Since olden times legend which attracted and comes into notice of masters of artistic word and researchers of Ukrainian folk-lore lives among local habitants. Wedding was corrected in the mud flow Cherche. However much it lasted not long: messengers informed that Turkish detachments surrounded a village. People made haste to the cave. It already was so usually - to be hidden in it, wedding proceeded and there. The young wanted to become swollen to the periwinkle on a wedding chaplet and went out from a cave. So enemies hunted down the place of refuge. Such is told in other variant of legend: people from tatars in a cave were hidden. A day second passed. Did not become water... One woman went with a bucket to the river. Here tatars. A woman escaped, a dog which disrobed refuge meddled after her. Forwards offered in captivity to seem to the people. But well people knew a caress a tatar and the future fate - renounced. Then tatars at the entrance putted of straw buckwheat, set on fire, and all, who was hidden in a cave, kept indoors on a world anymore, suffocated by smoke.

One of the first legends were used in the poem of "Podillia" (1826) by the Polish poet of "Ukrainian school" Mauritius Goslavsky, which conducted the childhood in Nigun, and later taught in surrounding villages. He glorifies beauty of nature of Podillia, glorifies heroic history traditions of our edge, military exploits of his defenders, in particular cossacks. In a poem a lot of attention is spared to the wedding ceremony. ...The attack of turks halts wedding. The young cossack Artem takes up arms, and his fiancee Zosia together with other fellow-villagers is hidden in a cave above Smotrich. When, it seems, a danger passed, Zosia with girls has gone out from a cave... They were expected by the same tragic fate, as legend narrates. A poet wrote: "Extermination of a few thousand people in the Zalytsky caves in the Kam'yanets-Podilskyi district is the table of contents of this part of poem... Those caves washed-up in rocks by water stretch under earth over twenty layers and is closed in the mud flow Gymentsy".

Yet in the last century these caves were not once visited by travelers, searching here that periwinkle about which is spoken in legend. But ivy was found only... Became interested by them and scientists. Was founded Kam'yanets-Podilskyi zemsky writing book of XVI century, in which the act of 1543 year witnessed about distributing of earth between Cherche and Zalychia villages, was exposed. In him was written, that a cave did not belong to one of these villages, they can use it jointly, because this "common refuge in the time". The habitants of both villages are under an obligation were to make stairs, that on them to reach in a cave. Because then she was on an unattainable height.

At the end of the last century hundred human skeletons are exposed in caves. They were taken away outside and buried not far away from the entrance in a cave on the Smotrich shore. In 1899 on a grave is set up monument with inscription: "By svyaschennodeystvyem of the bishop Dmytryya Podolskogo and Bratslavskogo bones on July, 3 are here buried, 1891 years of the christian stifled it is once by tatars and yznesennykh from these caves". Now track does not remain from the burial place and monument: for ninety past years Smotrich changed a river-bed, and wherein once there was a grave, a river flows now. Part to the tombstone was saved and is exhibited in a history museum Kam'yanets-Podilskyi.

On the instructions of IV archaeological convention in Russia the known archaeologist, professor of the Kiev university V. B. Antonovich in 1883 explored a cave, worked out its plan and detailed description. "Boldly, with a danger for the life, he goes with twine and compass in hands to the main cave, did the plan of it, dug namylu in it and found a lot of bones of human and feral" there - the known researcher of Podillia �. Sitsinsky wrote.

In 1970 ternopilsky speleologists conducted in Zalychansky cave the repeated topographical survey. Fifty meters is such general length of motions which it is succeeded to inspect. Farther cracks close up and obstructions go, a mountain tight closes the bowels of the earth. Only a taciturn stone in millennial wrinkles saves memory about those unhappy, that made off the last minutes of life in this cold black grave.

The secret of caves was so exposed; history basis of poetic legends of old Smotrich became clear.

M.Kyndys, director of district folk historical-regional museum
April, 1998, "New life"

Cherche Village is located on right shore of the Smotrich river and known from XV century. How a small town comes forward from 1565 year, and in 1578 got a magdebursk right. There are tailings of Old Russian town. According to legend, here was the rocky monastery blasted by Mongol-tatar in 1240th. Speak, in a forest there is a mountain which is named "Monastery". Yet at the end of the last century a stone cross which grew in earth was here visible.

Korol V.P., NPP "Podilskuy Tovtru"

Cherche. Population of orthodox religion. The settlement collected the name it from the word of "cherche" or "monastic", that monks. There are the grounds to believe that here, in this place, where now there is the natural boundary "Monastery", there was once an orthodox monastery on high shore of Smotrich. Speak that recently in this place there was visible cross, which now grew in land. On to the history sources Cherche is remembered in the �V item as own of kamyanets biskups, and about an orthodox monastery since then we do not find no more information. It is possible to assume that Cherche to this time (�V century) belonged to the orthodox monastery. As small town Cherche comes forward already in 1565, and with 1578 the habitants of him used a magdebursky right and right to arrange two fairs on Epiphany and the day St. Bartholomew. Cherche was the Biskups manor to 1793 year and since then entered a treasury and is complimented with Potomkin's nieces Alexandry Branitsky.

A church in Cherche existed in the �V� item already, similarly and Cherches priest is remembered in that time tax lists. In the last century (�V���) there was the uniat church of the name of St. Mukolaj Murlikijsky Wonder-worker. When a church was built - it is unknown, there is known only its builder - Fedor Balandaj, which in 1739 was dead. Church it was wooden three-domed. In 1790 it was with two domes, so as the third dome was blasted by wind and in place of this dome the ordinary roof covered by a straw was arranged. An existent now stone church was stopped up near an old woman to the church in 1790 it partly complete on facilities of later then the squires countess Branitska and comers in 1815 and sanctified the in name St. Nick, but the apartment is not completed. In 30th there are arranged two wooden domes; one above middle part of temple, and second above entrance western part; under the last dome there are the done small portholes. In 1879 church of reconstructed from middle and with outwardly, arranged on a stone wall iconostasis and church painted in a middle by oily paints. Iconostasis now is black in color from dampness and spoiled. The house of priest is made of stones, covered by a straw, and for a parish clerk wooden, covered by a straw also. Built on facilities of zemsky collections in 1895 (P. 443-444)

Setsynskyy �. Comers and churches of the Podilskuy eparhy
// Labours of the Podilskyi eparhy historical-statistical committee. - IX V century it is Kam'yanets-Podilskyi, 1901. - 1232.

Chapel of 4-th class. It is built by the bishop Kamenetskym by Paul Pyasetskym in 1637 for the economies. Length 40, width 17, a height is 19 1/2 arshin, on outskirts small tower. In 1856 by efforts of administrator by comers is inwardly picked up thread and decorated by aquatic paints thrones built new are stone. An organ is done and placed into again rebuilt place.
Main throne:
1. St. Trinity
2. St. Virgin Maria
3. Crucifix of Jesus Christ.

Kamjanets-Podil's'kyi State Archive. Fond 685. - ���. 33. - Page 82-84

See also the legend about Cherche, written down by Vladimir Dal